Each country has variety of Media in different forms to do the work of broadcasting. In modern society, most people still believe that traditional media such as newspaper and television are more authoritative than social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter. Especially for political news, traditional media is still the main channel of broadcast to public. However, according to our guest speaker Mr. Nadeem, a newspaper practitioner in London, I understood that mainstream media in UK usually has its own political attitude. That made me think what the difference of political news between different media and different countries. In this acritical, I would like to discuss the Media’s Political leanings in United Kingdom, United States, where is the counties I am taking collage, and China, where is the place I from, based on my research on website and my own experience.
In United Kingdom, newspaper is still playing an important role in people’s daily life. Most of British newspapers usually have their distinctive political positions, which means each newspaper has certain audience. There is only one newspaper in UK has no political bias according to themselves, which is “the independent”. The rest of newspaper companies would either political left or right in their articles about political news. In the British mainstream newspaper media, there is an interesting phenomenon, which is the number of right wing newspaper is far more than left wing’s. As the matter of fact, unlike rest of European counties, only British politics is dominated by Centre-right. And that is the reason that no matter based on reading capacity or newspaper sales, right bias newspapers are more popular than left’s. Like the summary shows above in the lecture of Mr. Nadeem, in British mainstream newspapers, only “The Guardian” and “Daily Mirror” have the tendency of left, whereas rest of popular newspaper in UK, such as “The Daily Mail”, “The Daily Express” and “The Daily Telegraph”, are either absolute political right or stay between political right and political center. In a British melodrama called “Yes Prime Minister”, there is a conversation that summarized most of British newspapers in a sentence. “The Daily Mirror is read by people who think they run the country; The Guardian is read by people who think they ought to run the country; The Times is read by the people who actually do run the country; The Daily Mail is read by the wives of the people who run the country; The Financial Times is read by people who own the country; The Morning Star is read by people who think the country ought to be run by another country; And The Daily Telegraph is read by people who think it is.” On the other hand, for television stations like British Broadcasting corporation (BBC) and Independent television (ITV), the political position for them is absolute neutral. According to the British tradition, British newspapers can have a clear political position, but the television station must strictly abide by political neutral. The UK television broadcasting stations cannot be biased towards any political party.
On the other hand, the mass media in United States is quite in an opposite position in political field. The first thing that is different with medias in UK is that the television broadcasting companies could also have their own political bias. Unlike BBC in UK which hold the neutral position during the political news delivering, in US, it is a normal phenomenon that television station has its own opinion about current politics. Moreover, unlike in UK where the majority media corporations are political right bias, in US, most of media companies are left bias. According to the research of Groseclose, in the US twenty mainstream medias, 18 of them are left bias whereas only two of them are right bias. Most well-known media corporations, such as Cable News Network (CNN), National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and New York Time, are political left bias. There is only one national wide broadcasting company that hold the position on right, and that is Fox News. As we can say that Fox news is the flag of Republic. One of the main reason that US media are so “left” is that most of media practitioners, especially journalists, are left bias. Moreover, people in academic filed, entertainment filed, and media filed are easier to watch the news, comparing to those who working in industry or agriculture. Since the audience the most important matter for media companies, in order to attract more audience, coming into the taste is also necessary.
But there is a country where all the media have no political bias or any other opinion but support the government, and that place is China. Neither have similarity to US or UK, China’s government has absolute control in public broadcasting. There is no certain law to constraint the power of government about controlling media, and freedom of speech in constitution has no real power. Moreover, because Communist Party in China is the only party that holding the power, Chinese government has zero tolerance about any opposite opinion in China’s society. Therefore, comparing to broadcasting, while delivering the politic news in China, media is playing the role as propaganda machine. Like China Central Television (CCTV) is a television station that directly organized by government, any news about anything will be examined in cast that there is some information in that news that against Chinese government. As for news from foreign counties media, the Great Fire Wall could block them from internet, which mean in China, it is hard to know Chinese politics thought foreign medias. Overall, unlike the UK or US medias which have different political bias, China’s medias have only one opinion, the party’s opinion.
In conclusion, different opinions are always existing no matter where. But it seems more sensitive when people talking about politics due to the matter of entire country. And media’s role is delivering the message to public at the first time. Meanwhile, the attitude of objective is necessary in order to increase the accuracy of political news. However, there is no stander about what is objective. Because of different reasons, medias usually might have affected by different pressures and begin to be losing affirmatives.